Education on the Holocaust


www.dukeofkentschool.org.uk
"The Holocaust (Shoal) Fundamentally challenged the foundations of civilization. The unprecedented character of the Holocaust will always hold universal meaning."
Declaration of the Stockholm International Forum on the Holocaust, 26-January 28, 2000



The working group "education" of the Task Force has published the following on national guidelines for education about the Holocaust or the Shoal with the participation of representatives from Great Britain, Italy, Israel, the Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Sweden, the United States and Germany. Although education about the Holocaust in Germany has to take into account the very specific conditions of the perpetrator company, BBS considers it nevertheless useful for general guidance these guidelines here in German translation reproduce (English-language original):


"Total is the education about the Holocaust ... 

  • increase the Kenntnistand about this unique act of destruction,
  • the commemoration of the victims received,
  • Teachers and students to encourage, with respect to the presence on the ethical-moral and spiritual questions raised by the Holocaust, thinking.
The targets can be read clearly from the following definitions of the Holocaust:

  • 'Under the mantle of World War II and for the benefit of their "new order," the Nazis tried to murder the Jews of Europe. For the first time in history, industrial methods for mass destruction of an entire people were employed. Six million people were murdered, among them 1.500.00 children. This event is called the Holocaust. The Nazis enslaved and murdered millions of other people. Sinti and Roma, the mentally and physically disabled, Poles, Soviet prisoners of war, trade unionists, political opponents, prisoners of conscience, homosexuals, and others were killed in large numbers. ' Imperial War Museum, London (Großbirtannien).
  • 'The term' Holocaust 'refers to any act of genocide in the 20th century history: the state-sponsored, systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945. Jews were the main victims - six million were murdered; Gypsies, the handicapped, and Poles were also the target of destruction and decimation for racial, ethnic or national political reasons. Millions more people - including homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, Soviet prisoners of war, and political dissidents - suffered painful oppression and death under Nazi tyranny '. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC (USA).
  • 'The Holocaust was the murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators. Between the German invasion of the Soviet Union in the summer of 1941 and the end of the war in Europe in May 1945, Nazi Germany and its allies, tried to murder every Jew in their domain. Because Nazi discrimination against the Jews with the so-called. 'Seizure of power' began in January 1933, many historians consider this date as the beginning of the era of the Holocaust. The Jews were certainly not the only victims of Hitler's regime, but they were the only group who wanted to wipe out the Nazis in their entirety. ' Yad Vashem, Jerusalem (Israel). 
The education about the Holocaust can and must distinguish between different contexts. To detect the differences between the Holocaust and other genocides, comparisons should be carefully selected and only similarities are named.

When teaching about the Holocaust, it is helpful to ask three basic questions: 
  • Why shall I teach about the Holocaust?
  • What shall I teach about the Holocaust?
  • How shall I teach about the Holocaust?
The first question involves fundamental aspects. The second question involves selection of information, while the third question to the appropriate pedagogical approach of the respective learning group revolves. These guidelines affect neither the first nor the third question. These issues are addressed by other policies.

About the subject of history, the Holocaust can, inter alia, also in the context of professional teaching literature (n. = German), Psychology, Religion (n. or LER) are discussed.

As national and local commemorative activities are seen as important, it makes sense to support these educational side.

The study of the Holocaust should be addressed in the context of a pan-European historical perspective. We therefore encourage teachers to explore the local level of such a historical perspective. Teachers should be treated as a reference framework for the events of the Holocaust with the following topics:
  • Antisemitism 
  • Jewish life in Europe before the Holocaust
  • The effects of World War I 
  • The rise of the Nazis to power 
In the treatment of the Holocaust from a historical perspective, teachers should consider when preparing lessons, inter alia, the following aspects. They should in the historical context of the specific viewing angle
  • Sacrifice,
  • Perpetrators,
  • Collaborators,
  • Viewers
  • and rescuers
with problematize.
1933-1939
  • Dictatorship in National Socialist Germany
  • Judaism in the so-called. 'Third Reich'
  • Early forms of persecution
  • The first concentration camps
  • The reaction of the world community
1939-1945
  • The Second World War in Germany
  • The National Socialist racial ideology and policy
  • The "euthanasia" program
  • Persecution and murder of Jews
  • Persecution and murder of non-Jewish victims
  • Jewish reactions to Nazi policies
  • Ghettos
  • Mobile task forces (= death squads)
  • The expansion of the camp system
  • Extermination camp
  • collaboration
  • resistance
  • Flight
  • The reaction of the world community
  • Death Marches
  • liberation
Effects
  • Postwar trials
  • DP camps (DP = Displaced Persons) and emigration
The purpose of these guidelines is to support the education about the Holocaust. The way the education will differ from country to country, from school to school and with respect to the respective circumstances of the time. Therefore, it is felt that it is important to underline the need for curricular self-evaluation by the teachers. "


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